zu guter letzt noch ein US-amerikanischer Artikel mit wichtigen Aussagen zu DHEA/Autoimmungeschehen und konkreter Studiennennung bitte wiederum die Dosierungen beachten!!! VIEL zu hoch!!! l.g. Jürgen Boch
Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), produced primarily by the adrenal glands, is the most abundant circulating steroid in humans and can be converted into other hormones, including estrogen and testosterone. It has been characterized as a buffer hormone, with receptor sites in the liver, kidney, and testes, and has a key role in a wide range of physiological responses. Circulating levels of DHEA decline with age, with circulating levels of DHEA in 70-year-old individuals only about 20% as high as in young adults. This age-related decline does not occur with any of the other adrenal steroids and a relationship has been suggested between lower DHEA levels and heart disease, cancer, diabetes, obesity, chronic fatigue syndrome, AIDS, Alzheimer’s disease, and autoimmune diseases. (1)
Studies have shown DHEA to be of therapeutic value in adrenal insufficiency as well as autoimmune conditions. Several clinical studies have also demonstrated DHEA to be of benefit in treating food allergies, multiple chemical sensitivities, and reactions to airborne allergens. One hundred and fifty different steroid hormones are derived from pregnenolone, which is why it has been described as the grandmother of steroid hormones. Research indicates that pregnenolone improves the ability to remember and retrieve information, increases the ability to handle stress, and has a beneficial effect on the myelin sheath. Pantothenic acid (vitamin B5) is a cofactor in the adrenal gland’s production of hormones. Deficiency causes atrophy of the adrenal glands, which leads to fatigue, headache, sleep problems, and digestive disturbances.
DHEA supplementation has been associated with increased emotional and physical well-being. In one study, 30 individuals between the ages of 40 and 70 years received 50 mg/day of DHEA or a placebo, each for 3 months, in double-blind crossover fashion. During DHEA treatment, a remarkable increase in physical and psychological well-being was reported by 67% of the men and 84% of the women. No side effects were seen. (2) An article in the journal Clinical Endocrinology described a study of the effect of oral DHEA replacement therapy in women with Addison’s disease (Gebre-Medhin et al. 2000). The researchers found that DHEA and DHEA-sulfate (DHEA-S) levels were restored to normal in those patients receiving 50 mg of DHEA, whereas the DHEA-S level was slightly above the normal reference value in those receiving 200 mg of DHEA. Circulating levels of androgens (androstenedione, testosterone, and testosterone/SHBG ratio) were normalized in all patients. No serious side effects were seen, but some of the patients experienced increased apocrine sweat secretion (apocrine glands are in the armpit, anal, genital, and breast areas and produce a strong odor), itchy scalp, and acne, all of which were reversed when DHEA was discontinued. The authors concluded that a daily replacement dose of 50 mg of DHEA results in near physiological levels of DHEA, DHEA-S, androstenedione, and testosterone in women with Addison’s disease without severe side effects (Gebre-Medhin et al. 2000).
Another article described a randomized, double-blind study in which 39 patients with Addison’s disease received 50 mg of oral DHEA daily for 12 weeks (Hunt et al. 2000). After DHEA treatment, levels of DHEA-S and delta- ( 4 ) -androstenedione rose from subnormal to within the adult physiological range. Total testosterone increased from subnormal to low normal with a fall in serum sex hormone-binding globulin in females, but with no change in either parameter in males. In both sexes, psychological assessment showed significant enhancement of self-esteem with a tendency for improved overall well-being. Mood and fatigue also improved significantly, with benefit being evident in the evenings. The authors concluded that DHEA replacement corrects this steroid deficiency effectively and improves some aspects of psychological function. These positive effects, in the absence of significant adverse events, suggest a role for DHEA replacement therapy in the treatment of Addison’s disease. Studies suggest that low DHEA-S might be a prognostic marker and a sign of exhausted adrenal glands (Hunt et al. 2000; Beishuizen et al. 2002)
DHEA has several different effects on the immune system. Animal studies have shown DHEA to preserve immune competence and prevent immune suppression caused by viral infections.(3) Human studies of postmenopausal women given 50 mg/day DHEA demonstrated increased natural killer cell activity and a six percent decrease in the proportion of T-helper cells.(4) DHEA levels have also been found to be low in people infected with HIV. A study of 108 HIV-infected men found those with low DHEA levels were 2.3 times more likely to progress to AIDS. (5)
Studies have shown DHEA to be of therapeutic value in SLE, rheumatoid arthritis, and multiple sclerosis. DHEA levels are often low in patients with these diseases, at least in part due to adrenal suppressive drugs such as prednisone. A return to normal physiologic levels appears to reduce immune complex formation, inhibit lymphocyte proliferation, and increase stamina and sense of wellbeing. (1) In a small clinical trial in which 10 women with mild to moderate SLE were given 200 mg/day DHEA for three to six months, eight of the 10 women reported improvement in fatigue, energy levels, and overall wellbeing. (6) An additional study was conducted in which 50 women with mild to moderate SLE were given 50-200 mg/day DHEA for six to 12 months. Results demonstrated decreasing disease activity over the entire treatment period, as measured by the SLE Disease Activity Index. Benefits were sustained one year post-treatment, regardless of menopausal status. (7)
Several clinical studies have demonstrated DHEA, given in doses of 10-74 mg/day, to be of benefit in treating food allergy, multiple chemical sensitivity, asthma, and hereditary angioedema. These studies reported a decrease in severity of symptoms regardless of whether patients were receiving corticosteroid therapy or not. (1)
1. Alternative Medicine Review: DHEA monograph: Volume 6, No 3, 2001.
2. Yen SSC, et al. Replacement of DHEA in aging men and women. Potential remedial effects. Ann NY Acad Sci 1995;774:128-142.
3. Araneo BA, Shelby J, Li GZ, et al. Administration of dehydroepiandrosterone to burned mice preserves normal immunologic competence. Arch Surg 1993;128:318-325.
4. Casson PR, Anderson RN, Herrod HG, et al. Oral dehydroepiandrosterone in physiologic doses modulates immune function in postmenopausal women. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1993;169:1536-1539.
5. Jacobson MA, Fusaro RE, Galmarini RM, Lang W. Decreased serum dehydroepiandrosterone is associated with an increased progression of human immunodeficiency virus in infected men with CD4 cell counts of 200-499. J Infect Dis 1991;164:864-868.
6. van Vollenhoven RF. Engleman EG, McGuire JL. An open study of dehydroepiandrosterone in systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum 1994;37:1305-1310.
7. van Vollenhoven RF, Morabito LM, Engleman EG, McGuire JL. Treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus with dehydroepiandrosterone: 50 patients treated up to 12 months. J Rheumatol 1998;25:285-289.